Due to the various variables that could interfere with skin health and looks, customized skin care routine should be performed depending on skin type. Therefore, it is crucial for every person to know the type of skin she/he has.
In general skin types are classified into 5 groups:
- Normal skin
- Dry skin
- Oily skin
- combination skin
- Sensitive skin
With a possibility of combining skin types.
1. Normal skin
Normal skin type is the skin most skin aware people wish to have. It is so because in general people with normal skin types generally have no or few imperfections, no severe sensitivity, barely visible pores, and a radiant complexion. This is because of an adequate sebum secretion controlling the amount of trans-epidermal water loss (this is the water lost through the skin and it's different from sweating).
Figure1 Trans-epidermal water loss in healthy and damaged skin
2. Dry skin
Dry skin (Figure 2) is usually the result of a lack of sebum secretion, causing more exposure of the skin to the outside conditions, resulting in excess TEWL. Therefore, dry skin’s pores are almost invisible. In addition, dry skin usually has red patches because of inflammation, more visible lines, less elasticity because of less water content resulting in dull and rough complexion. People with dry skin should be focusing on having food and creams with high cholesterol and vitamin E because in their absence individuals were more likely to have dry skin.
3. Oily skin
Oily skin (Figure 3) is caused by excess production of skin sebum, thus people with oily skin usually have enlarged or/and blocked pores, blackheads, pimples, dull or shiny skin. Oily skin can be exacerbated by puberty, hormonal imbalances, stress, heat or too much humidity. One study revealed that, eating food rich in vitamin A, decreased the amounts of sebum secretion. Furthermore, eating poly-unsaturated fats decreased the number of inflammatory mediators leading to inflammation caused by the oily skin.
Figure 3. Oily skin
4. Combination skin
Combination skin (Figure 4) usually has a mixture of the last 2 groups, with a usual “T” shaped pater for oily skin, covering the forehead, nose and the front of the jaw. Individuals with this skin should have a balanced diet, drink plenty of water, consume vegetables, eat fermented food, and avoid processed food and sugar.
The sensitivity of the skin (Figure 5) can be caused by many factors such as hair removal, pollutants, and certain cosmetical products; therefore it is advised to avoid them after discovering them. Sensitivity can show up as redness, itching, burning, dryness. Individuals with sensitive skin should avoid sugar, processed meat, dairy, sodas, fried foods, and gluten.
- Baumann L, Baumann L. Cosmetic dermatology and medicine: principles and practice. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009. 366 p.
- Skin Types and Care: Normal, Dry, Oily, Combination, Sensitive [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 21]. Available from: https://www.webmd.com/beauty/whats-your-skin-type#1